Baseball
 
Background
Japan's modern national sport was introduced in 1872 by Horace Wilson, an American teacher. Japan's first formal baseball team was organized in 1878 by a railroad company.
Besides the professional leagues, baseball is played in high schools, colleges, universities, leading companies, and everywhere else space permits. Their teams hold tournaments twice a year, often on a nationwide scale, and attract huge crowds of spectators.

High School Baseball
Despite the popularity of pro baseball in Japan, Japan's most avidly followed sporting event is the All-Japan High School Baseball Tournament (aka National Senior High School Baseball Tournament), first held in 1915. Played in August at Hanshin Koshien Baseball Stadium near Osaka, it draws almost one million spectators to a tournament of the 49 regional finalists that survived local tournaments involving over 4,000 schools. The tournament is sponsored by the Japan High School Baseball Federation (Nihon Koto-gakko Yakyu Renmei, aka Koyaren) and the Asahi Shimbun, a leading newspaper. Teams also meet for the All-Japan Invitational High School Tournament (aka National Invitational Senior High School Tournament).
Organization: Japan High School Baseball Federation (Nihon Koto Gakko Yakyu Renmei), 06-443-4661 (phone)

University Baseball
At the university level, Japan has six major baseball factories: Waseda, Keio, Meiji, Rikkyo, Hosei, and Tokyo.

Professional Baseball
Except for one publicly held team, all professional teams are owned by Japanese corporations. Foreigners are barred by law from owning a professional Japanese baseball team.
Team plays 135 games per season, which lasts from April to October. The league champions play each other in the Japan Series (Nihon Shirizu), the championship series of Japanese professional baseball.
Japanese baseball games resemble Brazilian soccer matches, with obbligato drums, horns, and cheers by cheering sections (oendan) throughout the game.
Each team is allowed only three foreigners, usually Americans, who are often key players. (Some additional Koreans and Taiwanese are allowed in a special category.) However, this restriction may soon be lifted. The prime directive on a Japanese team, as in Japanese society, is harmonious relations (wa) among players and teams. This presents foreign players with special difficulties. For example, any expression of individuality, such as "hot dogging" (i.e., showing off), is discouraged. Also, active measures are taken against the shameless foreigner who threatens to break a Japanese-held baseball record, especially the 868 home runs of Sadaharu Oh (who is Taiwanese, but at least from a former colony).
The published team standings often show how far each team is behind the previous team—not the leader—and are written in decimal form, not fractions. For example, Team B is 3.5 games—not 3 1/2 games—behind Team A.
Tickets are available at the stadium and at Play Guide ticket bureaus, which are located on busy street corners and in department stores.

Professional Leagues
Japan has two professional leagues, the Central League and the Pacific League, each with six teams. The Central league has no designated hitter (DH). (Note that the Yomiuri Giants, Japan's first professional baseball team, are also called Kyojin, the Japanese word for Giants, because Japanese was purged of all foreign words during WWII.)
Central League (aka CL or Se League)
Chunichi Dragons (owner: Chunichi Shimbun newspaper)
Hanshin Tigers (owner: Hanshin Electric Railway)
Hiroshima Toyo Carp (owner: Mazda Motor & City of Hiroshima)
Yakult Swallows (owner: Yakult Honsha)
Yokohama Bay Stars (formerly Taiyo Whales)
Yomiuri Giants (aka Tokyo Giants or Kyojin) (owner: Yomiuri Newspaper)
Pacific League (aka PL or Pa League)
Chiba Lotte Marines (formerly Lotte Orions) (owner: Lotte Group)
Fukuoka Daiei Hawks (owner: Daiei Inc.)
Kintetsu Buffaloes (owner: Kinki Nippon Railway (Kintetsu))
Nippon Ham Fighters (owner: Nippon Meat Packers)
Orix Blue Wave (formerly Orix Braves) (owner: Orix Corp.)
Seibu Lions (owner: Seibu Railway Group)

Ballparks
Due to its shape and color, Tokyo Dome is nicknamed Big Egg. As its name implies, it an indoor (i.e., all-weather) stadium based on U.S. airdome technology. Games are also played at the following stadiums:

Team Ballpark Address Phone
Chiba Lotte Marines Chiba Marine Stadium 1, Mihama, Mihama-ku, Chiba City 043-296-1189
Chunichi Dragons Nagoya Ballpark 2-12-1, Tsuyu-hashi, Nakagawa-ku, Nagoya City, Aichi Pref. 052-351-5171
Fukuoka Daiei Hawks Fukuoka Dome 2-2-2, Chigyohama, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka City 092-847-1006
Hanshin Tigers Hanshin Koshien Ballpark 1-82, Koshien-machi, Nishinomiya City, Hyogo Pref. 0798-47-1041
Hiroshima Toyo Carp Hiroshima Municipal Ballpark 5-25, Moto-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima City 082-228-5291
Kintetsu Buffaloes Fujiidera Ballpark 3-1-1, Kasugaoka, Fujiidera City, Osaka Pref. 0729-39-5775/6
Nippon Ham Fighters Tokyo Dome
(aka Big Egg & Korakuen Stadium)
1-3-61, Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112 03-5800-9999
Orix BlueWave Green Stadium Kobe Midori-dai, Suma-ku, Kobe City 078-795-5589
Seibu Lions Seibu Lions Stadium 2135, Kami-Yamaguchi, Tokorozawa City, Saitama Pref. 359 0429-26-7411
Yakult Swallows Meiji Jingu Stadium
(aka Jingumae Ballpark)
13, Kasumigaoka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160 03-3236-8000
Yokohama Bay Stars Yokohama Stadium Yokohama Koen (Y. Park), Naka-ku, Yokohama City 231 045-661-1251
Yomiuri Giants Tokyo Dome
(aka Bigg Egg & Korakuen Stadium)
1-3-61, Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112 03-5800-9999


Major Differences from U.S. Baseball
* Games can end in a tie. In fact, some teams play for a tie.
* Teams avoid humiliating opponents either by running up big scores in a game or by winning their league by an immodest number of games.
* The baseball is slightly smaller.
* Players are more loyal to their ball clubs.
* Play is not as aggressive.
* The strike zone is larger.
* Games are limited to 4 hours or 15 innings, whichever occurs first.
* Free-agent system is more restrictive.
* Training is year round.

Directory
Central League (Sentoraru Yakyu Renmei), 03-3572-1673
Japan Baseball Hall of Fame & Museum
Office of the Baseball Commissioner (Puro Yakyu Komisshona Jimu-Kyoku), 03-3502-0022
Pacific League (Pashifikku Yakyu Renmei), 03-3573-1551

Further Reading and Watching
For an entertaining account of foreigners in Japanese baseball, read You Gotta Have Wa by Robert Whiting (published by Macmillan).
Or watch Tom Selleck hit a homu ran in the movie Mr. Baseball.

Glossary
auto kona outside corner
auto out
batta batter
batta-bokusu batter's box
batteri battery
battingu abereji batting average
batto baseball bat
boru ball
chu center fielder
daburu double
daburu hedda double-header
daburu pure double play
dajun batting order
daritsu batting average
dasha batter; hitter
fasuto first (base); first baseman
furu to swing
gettsu double play (literally, get two)
guraundo boi bat boy (literally, ground boy)
hidari left field; left fielder
hidari-kiki left-hander
hitto hit
homu home [base]
homu-in score [a run]
homu-pureto home plate
homu-ran home run
in kona inside corner
kaunto count
kochazu bokkusu coach's box
kochi coach
koen park
kyatcha catcher
kyujo ballpark
migi right field; right fielder
migi-kiki right-hander
nageru pitch; throw
naita night game
pitcha pitcher
pitchi-auto pitchout
pureto pitcher's mound
puro yakyu professional baseball
rain appu lineup
raina line drive
raito right (field); right fielder
refuto left (field); left fielder
rodo (gemu) road game
rojin baggu rosin bag
sado third (base); third baseman
sekando second (base); second baseman
senta center (field); center fielder
shinguru [hitto] single
shoto shortstop
suribesu triple (literally, three-base hit)
sutoraiku strike
sutroraiku-auto strikeout
Tora-kichi Hanshin Tigers fan
toripuru pure triple play
toripuru triple
toru to catch
toshu pitcher
utsu to hit
yakyu baseball (literally, field ball)
yasen fielder's choice

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